This site uses cookies that are essential for the operation of this site. We use additional cookies to support optional features of the site or to gather anonymous usage statistics for the improvement of this site. More information
By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.


Easing the daily management
of diabetes


There are two major types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2.

The term, diabetes mellitus (DM) applies to several disease states. Hyperglycaemia, high blood glucose, is the main symptom of all types of diabetes. However, its cause differs, depending on the type of diabetes that the patient has been diagnosed with.

The exact cause of diabetes is unknown, although both genetic and environmental factors, as well as lifestyle issues (for example, obesity and lack of exercise) appear to play roles.

Diabetes Risk Factors

  • Family history
  • Ethnicity
  • Certain viral infections
  • Weight
  • Inactivity
  • Age
  • Prediabetes (a condition in which the blood sugar level is higher than normal)
  • Gestational diabetes (diabetes that develops during pregnancy).


Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that causes the body’s immune system to mistakenly attack and destroy the insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas. The onset of the symptoms often appears to be abrupt, however, research studies show that the autoimmune pathologic process actually begins years before the physical signs and symptoms suddenly become evident1.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is increasing in incidence in Europe as well as in the worldwide population. It is estimated that approximately 70,000 children between 0-14 years develop T1DM annually worldwide, giving a global prevalence of approximately 440,000 cases2. In Europe alone 160,000 children and adolescents (under 15 years old) are estimated to be affected by the year 20203.


Signs and Symptoms of type 1 diabetes
Some of the common symptoms of Type 1 diabetes are:

  • Increased thirst and frequent urination
  • Weight loss
  • Extreme hunger
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fatigue
  • Women with Type 1 diabetes may also stop menstruating. These signs and symptoms manifest suddenly and severely upon onset.



Treatment of type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes requires treatment to keep blood sugar levels within a target range. Treatment includes:

  • Taking several insulin injections every day or using an insulin pump or insulin pump with CGM i.e. sensor augmented pump therapy. 
  • Monitoring blood sugar levels several times a day
  • Eating a healthy diet that spreads carbohydrate throughout the day.
  • Regular physical activity or exercise. Exercise helps the body to use insulin more efficiently. It may also lower your risk for heart and blood vessel disease.

Because the pancreas doesn’t produce any more endogenous insulin, anyone who has type 1 diabetes needs lifelong exogenous insulin. Hence, a type 1 diabetes patient will in most cases have to inject several injections according to their meals and daily activities.

Types of insulin are many and include:

  • Rapid-acting insulin
  • Long-acting insulin
  • Intermediate options


Type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately 85% to 95% of the diabetes, it is a common condition and serious increasing global health problem4. While its exact cause is not known, patients with Type 2 diabetes do not suffer from the autoimmune destruction of beta cells. Although it’s a progressive disease, most patients continue to produce insulin for a long time after diagnosis. Many continue to produce insulin throughout their lives and may need external insulin only at a later stage.

Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes patients initially see many harmless symptoms, which means it takes longer to diagnose. Symptoms of hyperglycaemia are similar to that of Type 1 diabetes:

  • Increased thirst and frequent urination
  • Extreme hunger
  • Fatigue
  • Blurred vision.

Other problems may occur at a later stage, including low healing process or tingling and numbness in the hands or feet. Men with Type 2 diabetes may also experience erectile dysfunction.


1 Wang X., Jia S., Geoffrey R., Alemzadeh R., Ghosh S., Hessner M.J., Identification of a Molecular Signature in Human Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Using Serum and Functional Genomics, The Journal of Immonology, January 31, 2016. 180:1929-1937; doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.180.3.1929.

2 International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes atlas. 3rd ed. Brussels: International Diabetes Federation; 2006.

3 Patterson CC, Dahlquist GG, Gyürüs E, Green A, Soltész G. Incidence trends for childhood type 1 diabetes in Europe during 1989-2003 and predicted new cases 2005-20: a multicentre prospective registration study. Lancet [Internet]. Elsevier Ltd; 2009 Jun 13 [cited 2014 Nov 23];373(9680):2027–33. Available from:

4 International Diabetes Federation. IDF DIABETES ATLAS, Sixth edition, 2013, pp.34. Harris M, Zimmet P.Classification of diabetes mellitus and other categories of glucose intolerance. AlbertiK, Zimmet P, Defronzo R, editors. International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus. Second Edition. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd; 1997. p9-23.

Recommended Information